The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX) is so far the biggest, in terms of the number of dispatched personnel, civilian mission initiated under the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) of the EU. EULEX aims to help with and promote the rule of law principle with a special focus on judiciary. The EU promotes peace and stability in the Western Balkan region and EULEX is a part of this campaign. Czytaj więcej

EU Mission DRC Artemis: Greek goddess of the Hunt who brought peace in the Great Lakes Region?


ArtemisIn 2003 the European Union launched its first missions: one civilian (EUPM Bosnia & Herzegovina) and two military: ‘Concordia’ in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and ‘Artemis’ in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This article aims to analyze the latter. Operation ‘Artemis’ was the first autonomous EU military operation (independent of NATO) conducted outside Europe and therefore can be considered as an important step in development of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)[1]. However, has it provided peace and stability in the DRC, and more broadly – in the Great Lakes Region as it aimed to? Czytaj więcej

EUTM Mali: a European mission to bring stability to Mali and hope for the Sahel region


mali, zrodlo - wikipedia.orgUnder the framework of its Strategy for Security and Development in the Sahel, the EU’s objective is the promotion of stability, connecting security and development in order to address the root causes of insecurity, under-development and conflicts affecting the local, regional and global balance. The EUTM Mali is therefore the cornerstone of this long term strategic objective aiming to bring a durable solution to the Malian crisis. Czytaj więcej

EUPOL Afghanistan: too small, too slow, too late?


EUPOL-Logo source: Europol AfghanistanLaunched on 15th June 2007, the European Union Police Mission (EUPOL) in Afghanistan is an integral part of the international community’s efforts to stabilise and reconstruct the country after the ousting of the Taliban. At the International Afghanistan Conference of November 2001 in Petersberg, an agreement was reached on the division of tasks in the security sector amongst so-called “Lead Nations”, with responsibilities shared as follows: Czytaj więcej

The European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The First Laboratory for the European Crisis Management Competences


police, zrodlo- eupm.orgThe European Union Police Mission (EUPM) may be considered as the most important laboratory for testing the EU civilian crisis management competences in the area of the rule of law. Indeed, EUPM was the first-ever European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) mission, dealing with the Security Sector Reform (SSR). The mission was officially launched on 1 January 2003 with a three-year mandate, with the view to replace the UN International Police Task Force (IPTF). The EUPM’s non-executive mandate was more narrowly defined in comparison with its predecessor, therefore it was extended in 2007 and 2009. The mandate of the mission ended on 30 June 2012. In accordance with Annex 11 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace, the EU Police Mission aimed “to establish sustainable policing arrangements under Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) ownership in accordance with best European and international practice”. Czytaj więcej

European Union in the Horn of Africa – the operations that need to be continued

RAFAŁ SMENTEK, CII Petersberg Series

source: http://www.consilium.europa.euMilitary missions are always described and shown by the media and the most fiercely debated by politicians. That is the reason why operation “Atalanta”, maritime military mission off the coast of Somalia is the only one which comes to our mind when we think about the European engagement in this region. Of course, EU NAVFOR Somalia is now probably the most important mission within the framework of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) but it is also only a part of a broader strategy.  Czytaj więcej

Building up the Congolese defence apparatus – EUSEC DRC and the challenges ahead of the EU

EUSEC DRC, source: EEAS, licence CC


The European Union advisory and assistance mission for security reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo (“EUSEC DR Congo” – EUSEC DRC) was launched in June 2005 for an initial period of one year, following the formulation of an official request by the government of the DRC. Succeeding to missions ARTEMIS DRC in 2003 and EUPOL Kinshasa 2005-7, EUSEC DRC is aimed to assist Congolese authorities in putting in place a modern and reliable defence apparatus. The overarching objective is to restore governance, restructure and reform the security and defence instruments of the DRC in order to create lasting conditions for stability as well as social and economic development of the country.  Czytaj więcej

EUMM GEORGIA: A Mission in the Caucasus Geopolitical Crossroads

RUBEN RUIZ, CII petersberg series

4_april_2011_ver_2_1500The geostrategic situation of Georgia rouses the interest of international powers, particularly the European Union (EU), Russia and the United States. However, the EU expects Tbilisi to make steps towards Brussels. Since its independence in 1991, Georgian diplomatic decisions have shown that this South Caucasus nation is committed to the European Union: Georgia-EU relations started in 1992 and were reinforced since the “Rose Revolution” in 2003. Georgia does not belong to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) anymore, and is part of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the Eastern Partnership. All these decisions illustrate where the Caucasian republic is looking at. This commitment is reciprocal. After the Five-Day-War in August 2008, the European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM) in Georgia is a consistent proof of European engagement with Georgia. Czytaj więcej

Should we engage even farther? Operation „Atalanta” as a possible milestone in the EU Common Security and Defence Policy

KAMIL ŁUKASZ MAZUREK,  CII petersberg series

Eunavfor_ source : licence CCThe Operation EUNAVFOR Somalia (codename “Atalanta”) belongs to this kind of military missions which are at the same time: pioneering, groundbreaking, immensely important, and where failure is not an option. This first and (as for now) only European Union (EU) military naval petersberg mission is essential for a number of reasons. First and foremost, it was created to disrupt and suppress piracy offshore of Somalia and protect shipping through this region. It also demonstrates the EU’s ability to manage an operation which is very demanding and crucial for international trade; it shows European involvement in international security cooperation as well as engagement in humanitarian relief actions; and, last but not least, it reasserts the commitment of the European nations to the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) on the global level.  Czytaj więcej

Essential assistance? Operation EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine and its impact on the management of the fragile border

KAMIL ŁUKASZ MAZUREK, CII petersberg series
EUBAM cooperation (border control)source: EEAS

EUBAM cooperation (border control)
source: EEAS

The European Union Border Assistance Mission to the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine) is, at present, one of the largest ongoing European Union (EU) civilian operations. The mission, unlike other EU operations in Eastern and Southern Europe, has not been of particular concern to European policy makers, even at the outset. At the same time, thanks to its longevity and – to a large extent – technical character, the mission has the potential of making real progress in the field of Ukraine-Moldova border cooperation and providing positive value added to the Transnistria problem. EUBAM demonstrates EU’s commitment to the resolution of this issue and shows that the Union will not tolerate this illegal quasi-state forever. Concomitantly, the fact of running a longstanding, non-military, expert-technical-style mission indicates EU’s bottom-up approach to resolving the problem – gradually and without unnecessary hastiness. Czytaj więcej