EUelections 2019: A View from Finland


Parament europejskiIn the 751-seated European Parliament, Finland has only 13 seats. As a result of the last European elections, held on 26th of May, these 13 seats were attributed to seven different parties. Even though the Finnish political scene is very divided, we can still say that the results of the euro elections followed the same trends as were seen at the European level. Czytaj więcej

The Ukrainian lady declined to dance with the European partner: last tango for the EU’s Eastern Partnership?


800px-Flag_of_Ukraine1A few days before the long-awaited Vilnius Summit (29-30 November), Ukraine took everyone short by turning its back to the European Union and moving closer to Vladimir Putin, the Russian President, as The Times wrote. On 21 November, the Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov signed a decree suspending the negotiations with the EU to „ensure the national security of Ukraine” and to „restore lost trade volumes with the Russian Federation”. The EU was warned through its special envoy in Kiev, the former Polish president Kwaśniewski, who said earlier that day “the deal with Ukraine is over”. Some commentators have seen the Vilnius Summit as a “moment of truth” for the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). In the context of Ukraine declining to dance with the European Union, what will be the consequences of the EU’s Eastern Partnership? The political reactions of Ukraine’s partners, the rationale of the Ukrainian decision and the probable consequences for the EU’s ENP will be also discussed. Czytaj więcej

Building a Wall of Separation: A Critical Insight into the EU Decision to Blacklist Hezbollah’s Military Wing


licence CCThe EU foreign policy in the Middle East has been largely influenced by the American leadership, but always kept its “European nuance”. In fact, it has less than strong support to Israeli approach towards the peace process and long condemned many of its practices. The decision to blacklist Hezbollah’s military wing follows a similar nuanced pattern. The debate has been going for sometime in the EU inner circles and corridors. However, the EU long resisted succumbing to American diplomacy and Israeli lobbying. The consent on blacklisting Hezbollah falls under the EU policy to keep its soil terrorist-free, following the terrorist attack in Burgas and compelling evidence of Hezbollah involvement in additional terrorist plot in Cyprus executed by a Hezbollah operative. Had it not been for the EU shuttle diplomacy that followed, this decision would have strengthened a questionable EU foreign policy actorness in the region. Czytaj więcej

Is the military wing of Hezbollah terrorist? From “Justius Lupsius” and “Capitals” to the East of the Mediterranean Sea, a diversity of points of view



During its meeting of July 22nd, 2013, the foreign affairs formation of the Council of the European Union (EU) decided to add the military wing of the Hezbollah on the European list of entities, groups and persons involved in terrorist acts. This designation results in the freezing of funds, financial assets and economic resources of the organisation in the EU and in an enhanced monitoring by the police services throughout Europe. The purpose of this contribution is to underline the broader context, issues and weaknesses of the European decision as well as its perception on the Eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. Czytaj więcej

EUTM Mali: a European mission to bring stability to Mali and hope for the Sahel region


mali, zrodlo - wikipedia.orgUnder the framework of its Strategy for Security and Development in the Sahel, the EU’s objective is the promotion of stability, connecting security and development in order to address the root causes of insecurity, under-development and conflicts affecting the local, regional and global balance. The EUTM Mali is therefore the cornerstone of this long term strategic objective aiming to bring a durable solution to the Malian crisis. Czytaj więcej

The European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The First Laboratory for the European Crisis Management Competences


police, zrodlo- eupm.orgThe European Union Police Mission (EUPM) may be considered as the most important laboratory for testing the EU civilian crisis management competences in the area of the rule of law. Indeed, EUPM was the first-ever European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) mission, dealing with the Security Sector Reform (SSR). The mission was officially launched on 1 January 2003 with a three-year mandate, with the view to replace the UN International Police Task Force (IPTF). The EUPM’s non-executive mandate was more narrowly defined in comparison with its predecessor, therefore it was extended in 2007 and 2009. The mandate of the mission ended on 30 June 2012. In accordance with Annex 11 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace, the EU Police Mission aimed “to establish sustainable policing arrangements under Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) ownership in accordance with best European and international practice”. Czytaj więcej

EUMM GEORGIA: A Mission in the Caucasus Geopolitical Crossroads

RUBEN RUIZ, CII petersberg series

4_april_2011_ver_2_1500The geostrategic situation of Georgia rouses the interest of international powers, particularly the European Union (EU), Russia and the United States. However, the EU expects Tbilisi to make steps towards Brussels. Since its independence in 1991, Georgian diplomatic decisions have shown that this South Caucasus nation is committed to the European Union: Georgia-EU relations started in 1992 and were reinforced since the “Rose Revolution” in 2003. Georgia does not belong to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) anymore, and is part of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the Eastern Partnership. All these decisions illustrate where the Caucasian republic is looking at. This commitment is reciprocal. After the Five-Day-War in August 2008, the European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM) in Georgia is a consistent proof of European engagement with Georgia. Czytaj więcej

Should we engage even farther? Operation „Atalanta” as a possible milestone in the EU Common Security and Defence Policy

KAMIL ŁUKASZ MAZUREK,  CII petersberg series

Eunavfor_ source : licence CCThe Operation EUNAVFOR Somalia (codename “Atalanta”) belongs to this kind of military missions which are at the same time: pioneering, groundbreaking, immensely important, and where failure is not an option. This first and (as for now) only European Union (EU) military naval petersberg mission is essential for a number of reasons. First and foremost, it was created to disrupt and suppress piracy offshore of Somalia and protect shipping through this region. It also demonstrates the EU’s ability to manage an operation which is very demanding and crucial for international trade; it shows European involvement in international security cooperation as well as engagement in humanitarian relief actions; and, last but not least, it reasserts the commitment of the European nations to the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) on the global level.  Czytaj więcej

Essential assistance? Operation EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine and its impact on the management of the fragile border

KAMIL ŁUKASZ MAZUREK, CII petersberg series
EUBAM cooperation (border control)source: EEAS

EUBAM cooperation (border control)
source: EEAS

The European Union Border Assistance Mission to the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine) is, at present, one of the largest ongoing European Union (EU) civilian operations. The mission, unlike other EU operations in Eastern and Southern Europe, has not been of particular concern to European policy makers, even at the outset. At the same time, thanks to its longevity and – to a large extent – technical character, the mission has the potential of making real progress in the field of Ukraine-Moldova border cooperation and providing positive value added to the Transnistria problem. EUBAM demonstrates EU’s commitment to the resolution of this issue and shows that the Union will not tolerate this illegal quasi-state forever. Concomitantly, the fact of running a longstanding, non-military, expert-technical-style mission indicates EU’s bottom-up approach to resolving the problem – gradually and without unnecessary hastiness. Czytaj więcej

Poland as the future EU Net Contributor and a mental hospital for the extreme European federalists – what President Komorowski said to the European students at College of Europe


On 14th of November a group of Polish students of College of Europe in Bruges had an opportunity to meet President Komorowski, who visited the Bruges campus in frame of his official visit in Belgium. After the meeting, Bronisław Komorowski gave a speech to the West-Flanders officials and the students representing more than fifty countries – mostly the European ones. The main topic of the President’s discourse was „The European Dream – beyond Pessimism and Crisis”. But there was also another point stressed by the President, which was the most commented among the students after the lecture, the Polish role in the united Europe and the Polish vision of the future of the EU.  Czytaj więcej