Indian economy in the light of Millennium Development Goals

mdgCEZARY SZCZEPANIUK

Two years before the end date of the Millennium Development Goals, India seems to be far from achieving most of them. Millennium Development Goals are eight objectives set up in 2000 to be achieved by 2015 in order to improve general social and living conditions in the world. Among the MDGs, six seem to be crucial from the social point of view: to eradicate poverty, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality, combat HIV/AIDS, reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. The key to understand conditions for India’s MDG progress (or rather their delay) is to analyze the country’s economy.  Czytaj więcej

The European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The First Laboratory for the European Crisis Management Competences

ALESSANDRA BRIGANTI, CII Petersberg Series

police, zrodlo- eupm.orgThe European Union Police Mission (EUPM) may be considered as the most important laboratory for testing the EU civilian crisis management competences in the area of the rule of law. Indeed, EUPM was the first-ever European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) mission, dealing with the Security Sector Reform (SSR). The mission was officially launched on 1 January 2003 with a three-year mandate, with the view to replace the UN International Police Task Force (IPTF). The EUPM’s non-executive mandate was more narrowly defined in comparison with its predecessor, therefore it was extended in 2007 and 2009. The mandate of the mission ended on 30 June 2012. In accordance with Annex 11 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace, the EU Police Mission aimed “to establish sustainable policing arrangements under Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) ownership in accordance with best European and international practice”. Czytaj więcej